RESOLVING THE CONTRADICTION BETWEEN COMMUNISM AND CAPITALISM IN THE MODERN WORLD

От редакции: настоящая статья опубликована на английском языке для владеющих английским языком и не владеющих русским языком посетителей сайта. Оригинал на русском языке находится по ссылке https://fra-mos.ru/razreshenie-protivorechiya-kommunizma-i-kapitalizma-v-sovremennom-mire/

Mazur Oleg Anatolevich

Doctor of Economic Sciences, Rector

Nevinnomyssk Institute of Economics, Management and Law

Abstract. The article reveals the contradiction between communism and capitalism as the main contradiction of the modern world — the era of the revolutionary transition from capitalism to communism, the era of the world communist revolution. The author proves that for the further successful development of the People’s Republic of China as the basis and leader of the modern world communist system, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Republic of Cuba, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Korean People’s Democratic Republic, an expanded reproduction of their communist essence is necessary, it is necessary to systematically resolve the contradiction of the communist nature and the moment of denial of communism in itself, it is necessary to ensure the preservation and development of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the formulation and implementation of the goal of communism — the all-round development of all members of society. The article substantiates that it is the development of the communist essence of the socialist countries that is a necessary and sufficient condition for a positive resolution of the contradiction between communism and capitalism in the modern world. What is happening in the modern world can be understood only if we consider the development of economic, political, military, and in general — social relations, as a result and forms of resolving the contradiction between the communist and capitalist world systems.

Keywords: communism, socialism, China, Russia, SCO, capitalism, imperialism, contradiction, fascism in foreign policy

The contradiction between the social character of capitalist production and the private form of appropriation was resolved first by the emergence of a monopoly, then a state-monopoly form of production. There are no other stages between this stage in the development of capitalism and communism. But in order to overcome this stage, a social revolution is necessary, which overthrows the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie and establishes the dictatorship of the proletariat.

The modern era of human development is the era of transition from capitalism to communism, which was started by the Great October Soviet Communist Revolution and has been going on for more than a century. From a historical point of view, a century is not much, especially if we compare it with the era of transition from feudalism to capitalism, which lasted more than three centuries, with centuries of the era of transition from slavery to feudalism, all the more so with millennia of the formation of slavery.

And for more than a century, the communist socio-economic formation has been opposing the world capitalist system. The confrontation began from the first years of the formation of communism, when the troops of bourgeois countries: Great Britain (including Canadian and Indian units), France, USA, Japan, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Romania, Poland, Finland, Turkey, Greece, Italy entered the territory Soviet Russia, realizing the interests of its capital, carrying out intervention and inciting civil war. In the mid-30s of the 20th century, the formation of socialism as the first phase of communism was completed in the USSR, that is, in the process of systematic subordination of production to public interests, public ownership of the means of production was created. Thus, for the first time in the history of mankind, a communist society was created.

The victory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in World War II led to the creation of the world communist system. In Europe, communist revolutions took place in Yugoslavia, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Albania. Having defeated the Kwantung Army, the USSR provided a turning point in the stubborn and difficult struggle of the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party against the Japanese invaders, thereby creating the most important prerequisites and conditions for the victory of the Chinese communists in the struggle against the bourgeois Kuomintang. The world communist system includes the People’s Republic of China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.[1]

The world communist system, having emerged as a revolutionary denial of capitalism, is the opposite of the world capitalist system. Coming out of capitalism, communism carries within itself the moment of its denial — «birthmarks of capitalism»[2]. The world capitalist system also contains the moment of its denial — the social nature of production and the organizing working class, the development of which is the condition and prerequisite for the denial of capitalism and the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat. That is, each of the world systems, as a side of the opposite, contains the other side as its own moment and therefore itself acts as the opposite. Thus, the opposition of communism and capitalism is not just the unity of opposing sides, but is the unity and struggle of opposites — a contradiction3.

As long as the world capitalist system persists, it will be in unity and struggle with the world communist system, that is, in contradiction with it. The contradiction between the world communist system and the world capitalist system is the main contradiction of the modern era — the era of transition from capitalism to communism, the era of the world communist revolution. What is happening in the modern world can be understood only if we consider the development of economic, political, military, and in general — social relations, as a result and forms of resolving the contradiction between the communist and capitalist world systems.

The presence of nuclear weapons opposes the fact that this contradiction is resolved by the destruction of world systems by military means. This was possible only when the first communist state was, like everything new, just emerging, weak. But, as you know, this did not happen, also because the working class of France, Great Britain, the USA, Germany showed proletarian solidarity with the struggle of Soviet Russia. The second possibility of the destruction of communist society arose in the Second World War. German fascism, as an open terrorist dictatorship of the most reactionary, most chauvinistic elements of German finance capital, together with its allies (Italy, Romania, Finland, Hungary, Slovakia, Spain), using the resources of the entire continental Western, Northern, Southern and Central Europe, unleashed a war with the USSR with the purpose of seizing territories and destroying socialism. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, having no advantages in population size, in production potential, used the planned, mobilization advantages of socialism, relying on the results of socialist industrialization and collectivization, on the advanced communist ideology, Soviet patriotism, inflicted a historic defeat on Nazi Germany and its allies.

The USSR, having created in a short time in response to US nuclear weapons its own nuclear weapons and their means of delivery to the United States, and then the world’s first thermonuclear weapons, prevented the third world war, saved hundreds of millions of people and humanity as a whole. Thus, the USSR made it practically impossible to destroy communism by capitalism by means of war.

However, after the death of Stalin I.V. the contradiction of socialism — the contradiction of its communist nature and the moment of denial of communism in itself[3] – began to intensify. An expanded reproduction of the moment of denial of communism within itself began. The leadership of the CPSU under the leadership of Khrushchev carried out the decentralization of economic management, liquidated the machine and tractor stations, which ensured the reproduction of public property in agriculture. At the 22nd Congress, the CPSU adopts a new party program, in which it renounces the dictatorship of the proletariat and the goal of communist society — complete prosperity and free, all-round development of all members of society, replacing it with a completely bourgeois «most complete satisfaction of growing needs». Thus, a counter-revolutionary coup took place, which led to the restoration of the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie and began the transition period from socialism to capitalism. This transition was completed in 1991. That is, the political counter-revolution took place in October 1961, and the reactionary, counter-revolutionary transition from socialism as the first phase of communism to capitalism (that is, social counter-revolution in a broad sense) took thirty years.[4]

The restoration of capitalism took place in Albania, Mongolia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and the GDR. Moreover, Czechoslovakia was divided into two states, and the GDR was annexed by the FRG. Yugoslavia, which was fragmented into many small states, in fact was and remains a capitalist country, in which group private property in the form of ownership of collectives of enterprises predominated.

At present, the world communist system consists of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the People’s Republic of China, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and the Republic of Cuba. These countries are socialist because socialist revolutions have taken place in them and the dictatorship of the proletariat has been established. In the DPRK, socialism as the first phase of the communist socio-economic formation has been created, in the other countries of the above, a period of transition to socialism is underway.

The total population of the socialist countries is about one and a half billion people, which exceeds the population of the United States and the most developed capitalist countries dependent on them.

China’s gross domestic product (GDP) is 1.27 times that of the United States. It is even more important that the volume of industrial production in the PRC in terms of added value is 1.55 times higher than that in the United States, and in the PRC they produce 11 times more steel than in the USA, and cement — 26 times more.[5][6] It is the industry that determines the power of the country, its ability to produce a material product that forms the basis of the reproduction of human society, including determining the level of development of medicine and health care in general. The superiority of the PRC industry over the US industry is a prerequisite for the fact that the PRC’s armed forces in the near historical future will achieve strategic parity with the US armed forces, which will create conditions for the growth of the PRC’s influence in military-political relations. More and more countries striving for political independence from the United States will move closer to the PRC, and this convergence will be based largely on the development of mutually beneficial economic relations. This trend is already being implemented in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO member states: China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India, Pakistan with a total population of 3232 million people, which is more than 40% of the world’s population, that is, 2.5 times the population of OECD[7]countries).

The growth of the economic and political influence of the leader of the world communist system inevitably aggravates the main contradiction of the era. The relative weakening of the United States as the leader of the world capitalist system, as an imperialist center, no less inevitably causes an intensification of the tendency to mobilize imperialist forces, which act in the following directions of influence:

  • curbing the development of the PRC;
  • containment of Russia as a primary nuclear power, as a partner of the PRC and a potential ally of the PRC;
  • influence on other countries cooperating with the PRC and Russia.

The United States and its subordinate countries are introducing higher customs tariffs against China, bans on technology transfer, and restrictions on the movement of capital. The naval forces of the United States and its allies create pressure on vital communications of the PRC, special services and so-called «non-governmental» organizations stimulate social, including national, conflicts in the PRC, as well as exacerbation of international contradictions, for example, with India.

Given the significant dependence of the PRC on the import of raw materials, the export of finished products, on the receipt of advanced technologies, the pres ence of national and confessional contradictions, territorial and aquatic disputes and conflicts between the PRC and Japan, India, the Philippines, Vietnam, the US efforts to «contain» the PRC have an impact on the development the leader of the world communist system. Moreover, the influence is twofold. On the one hand, the impact of world imperialism at the current moment actually limits the  development of the PRC. On the other hand, the need to overcome this limitation caused by US imperialism necessitates the development of what opposes capitalism as such — that is, the need to develop the communist essence of China.

The People’s Republic of China is in the same historical period of development as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the 1920s and until the mid1930s, that is, in the period of the creation of a socialist society, in the period of transition to socialism. This period was characterized by a diversified economy. The economy of the USSR had the following structures (according to the level of development): patriarchal order based on natural economy, petty-bourgeois order based on the labor of the owner of the means of production working for the market, private capitalist order, state-capitalist order, based on state ownership, but working with the aim of maximizing profits outside of state planning, communist order of working within the framework the state plan with the aim of realizing the public interest.

In the People’s Republic of China, there are all the same structures that are called sectors in China. The patriarchal sector is rapidly decreasing and losing importance, turning into a petty-bourgeois, petty-bourgeois sector has been widely developed since the 80s, the private capitalist sector developed in the same period not so much through privatization, as in Russia in the 90s, but on the basis of various forms of capital accumulation. Moreover, the peculiarity of the Chinese economy is that the private capitalist sector gives rise to another sector — the private monopoly, in which there are enterprises with foreign participation. The PRC’s economy is based on the communist and state-capitalist sectors.

The Charter of the Chinese Communist Party, which is the party’s program document, says: «It is necessary to continue to preserve and improve the basic economic system for the joint development of different sectors of the economy, among which the public property sector takes the leading place».

Chairman of the People’s Republic of China, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Xi Jinping, in a speech at a ceremonial meeting on the occasion of the centenary of the founding of the Communist Party of China on July 1, 2021, said: «Only socialism is salvation for China and 8 Statutes of the Chinese Communist Party (adopted with partial amendments by the XIX National Congress of the CPC on October 24, 2017) General Program. URL:    http://russian.news.cn/2017-11/03/c_136726536.htm (appeal date 15.05.2021) only socialism will allow China to develop successfully!».[8]

The sector of «public ownership» should include the communist sector of the economy, which works according to the state plan, works in the interests of the working class and, consequently, in the interests of the whole of society. The state-monopoly sector works with the aim of making a profit, and, therefore, being in unity with the communist sector, which is also state-owned, it is opposite to it in terms of the purpose of production. Thus, there is a contradiction between these sectors, and China’s movement towards socialism as the first phase of communism depends on the resolution of this contradiction. As the state planning embraces the state-monopoly sector and its subordination to public interests, this contradiction is positively resolved. The success of this movement will positively affect the resolution of the contradiction between the state and non-state sectors of the economy. In essence, the resolution of this contradiction is the resolution of the contradiction between communism and capitalism within communism itself in its formation. In the PRC, at every medium and large enterprise of various forms of ownership, there are party committees that influence the adoption and implementation of decisions of a production nature, which also allows the private sector to be regulated. This correlates with Lenin’s idea: «Not in the confiscation of the capitalists ‘property will even be the» nail «of the case, but in the nationwide, all-encompassing workers’ control over the capitalists and their possible supporters»[9].

The current stage of development of the People’s Republic of China is characterized by a number of features. The first is that development resources are gradually being depleted on the basis of foreign investments and obtaining technologies from abroad, since many industries have already reached mainly the modern technological level and further rapid growth is already impossible on this basis. The second feature is that the United States and its allies will no longer transfer technology as widely to China, which has become its strongest competitor. The United States is already pursuing a policy of «containment» of the PRC.  The third feature is that the level of real wages of workers in China, which is still insufficient for the normal reproduction of the labor force, nevertheless significantly increased and exceeded the level of wages in India and a number of other countries, which determines the redistribution of capital to these countries.

Thus, the success of China in economic development necessitates further growth based on the use of such advantages of the PRC, which India, Russia, Brazil, Indonesia, Bangladesh, other less developed countries and even the most developed countries — the USA and the EU — do not have. Moreover, the US, with its aggressive policy, is forcing China to turn to these advantages.

And such an advantage is by no means a «socialist market economy», but the antipode of the market — planning of the national economy of China, concentra tion of forces and resources on priority areas of society’s development. The CPC Charter says: «To carry out a unified planning of the development of cities and villages, regions, economic and social spheres, harmonious development of man and nature, internal development of the country».[10]

Of course, under the conditions of the transition period to socialism, there is a market and the spontaneity it causes, but it exists as a transitory, disappearing, and insofar as it cannot play a decisive role in the progressive movement of the economy. The market was undermined by monopolies already at the beginning of the 20th century. The most developed capitalist countries resort to planning within the public sector and to government regulation and programming of economic development. Without this, the capitalists can no longer exist in the conditions of state-monopoly capitalism.

The People’s Republic of China, based on state ownership of land and other natural resources, managing state and collective enterprises, using economic and political influence on private enterprises and organizations, regulating and directing their activities, carries out systematic management of the economic and, in general, social development of the country. For many decades, the Chinese economy has been moving without economic crises, having increased industrial production since 1990 by almost 20 times.[11]

At the same time, the development of China, being on the whole planned, contains a moment of spontaneity, caused by the spontaneity of movement in non-communist sectors of the economy. This spontaneity is the opposite of China’s movement towards communism. The struggle against spontaneity is a struggle against capitalism, and as this struggle succeeds, the Chinese economy and society as a whole will grow stronger as the basis and leader of the world communist system.

The planned development of a socialist country corresponds to the essence of communism, and in this sense is valid when it is aimed at realizing the goal of a communist society — complete prosperity and free, all-round development of all members of society.

In «Remarks on the second draft of the Plekhanov Program» V.I. Lenin wrote: «The end of the paragraph is also unsuccessful:» the planned organization of the social production process to meet the needs of both the entire society and its individual members. » This is not enough, Lenin emphasizes. Perhaps the trusts will also provide such an organization. It would be more definite to say «at the expense of the whole of society» (because this includes planning and indicates the direction of planning), and not only to meet the needs of members, but to ensure full well-being and free all-round development of a l l members of society»[12]. As a result, V.I. Lenin made sure that the Party Program approved by the Second Congress of the RSDLP reads: «By replacing private ownership of the means of production and circulation with public property and introducing a planned organization of the social-productive process to ensure the welfare and all-round development of all members of society, the social revolution of the proletariat will destroy the division of society into classes and thereby liberate all oppressed humanity»http:// www.rpw.ru/public/antirev.html — 39[13].

The development of the planned movement of the PRC corresponds to the essence of communism and is a huge advantage in relation to capitalist countries, since it creates opportunities for directing the efforts of hundreds of millions of people and material resources to achieve priority goals. An obvious example of a planned movement is the creation in about 10 years of the world’s largest network of high-speed railways, and the construction and operation of this network is not aimed at making a profit, but is solving the problem of social development.[14]

The commitment of the Chinese Communist Party to the welfare of the country’s residents is also an advantage of economic development. In the 14th FiveYear Plan, China will further narrow the income gap and improve its social security system. By 2022, China is expected to enter the World Bank’s «high-income country» level.[15] It is obvious that the solution of such a problem, given the size of China’s population, will lead to an increase in the gap between the PRC’s economy and the United States.

Equally important is the fact that an increase in workers’ wages necessitates an outstripping growth in labor productivity. Otherwise, there will be a drop in production efficiency, including a decrease in profitability. Consequently, it is necessary to introduce more productive technologies, accelerate equipment upgrades and thorough training of personnel.

The increase in real incomes of the population develops domestic consumption, which is becoming a powerful factor in the development of production and weakening the dependence of the Chinese economy on the deterioration of the conditions for exporting Chinese products due to the US policy of «containing» the PRC.

The most powerful factor in the development of the People’s Republic of Chi na can and should be the reduction of the duration of the work shift to 7, and then to 6 hours. The process of reducing working hours corresponds to the goal of a communist society — the all-round development of all members of society and is a powerful stimulus for scientific and technological progress, since it necessitates replacing the falling volumes of living labor with materialized ones, that is, introducing new, more productive technologies.

The CPC Charter states that China is and will remain for a long time at the initial stage of socialism; this inevitable historical stage in the implementation of socialist modernization in China, which at one time experienced economic and cultural backwardness, will take at least a hundred years.[16]  That is, the Chinese communists program to complete the transition period to socialism by 2049, which is quite reasonable, given the enormity of the tasks of creating socialism in a large country in which there are one billion four hundred million people and which until recently was a backward and dependent country from a historical point of view. The CPC Charter says «by the centenary of the PRC, completely transform China into a modernized socialist power.»   The Chairman of the People’s Republic of China, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, in a speech at the ceremonial meeting on the occasion of the centenary of the founding of the Chinese Communist Party on July 1, 2021, said: «We, filled with unprecedented enthusiasm, are moving forward towards the goal of fully building a modernized socialist power, scheduled for the centenary of the PRC».[17]

The capitalist world system, as the opposite of the contradiction between communism and capitalism, also has its own negation within itself — the social nature of production, the development of which systematically undermines the private form of appropriation, which is expressed in the development of the general crisis of capitalism. The growth rates of the US and EU economies lag significantly behind the growth rates of China and Vietnam. The most developed capitalist countries are unable to overcome the demographic crisis, crises of overproduction that cause financial crises, crises of public debt. Despite the fact that a significant part of the working class of the most developed capitalist countries is bribed by the bourgeoisie due to the inflow of resources from the less developed countries due to the unequal exchange, direct withdrawal of profits, the receipt of emission income from the issue of dollars and euros, in the USA and the EU there is an exacerbation of the class struggle, as in the form of collective actions of workers, and in converted forms: in the form of a struggle against racial, national and confessional discrimination, the struggle for the environment and other similar forms.

The transfer of material production from the USA and the EU to other countries, on the one hand, makes it possible to counteract the tendency of the rate of profit to decrease, on the other hand, it weakens the material basis of financial capital in the USA and the EU, the basis of healthy economic growth in these countries, while simultaneously strengthening the material basis other countries. Of course, to a certain extent, the profits received by the US and EU bourgeoisie from other countries support their economies, but at the same time increase the dependence of the US and EU on supplies from other countries.

The USA and the EU, carrying out the export of capital to China, receive a huge amount of profits from the located enterprises, while at the same time contributing to the technological and economic development of China. As China assimilates new technologies and creates its own competitive technologies, the profits of the US and EU monopolies from their enterprises in China will decrease and these monopolies will have to place their capital in other countries, in which the US and EU monopolies inevitably face competition. corporations from the PRC. Consequently, this source of profits for the financial capital of the USA and the EU will decrease.

With the weakening of the positions of the financial capital of the USA and the EU, their desire to restore and strengthen these positions inevitably grows, which leads to an increase in the aggressiveness of the USA as an imperialist center. The customs «wars» against the PRC (accompanied by the increased activity of the US fleet near the PRC and important sea lanes), which were provoked and organized by the United States under the leadership of US President Trump, are only the first attack of aggressiveness towards the PRC. The inevitable aggravation of the contradiction between the center of imperialism — the United States, and the leader of the world communist system — the PRC, as an expression and manifestation of the aggravation of the contradiction between capitalism and communism in the modern world.

In conditions in which the imperialist center is not fully capable of ensuring its dominance in any region or loses control over some region of the world or a separate country, and, especially, when the influence of the communist countries increases, the imperialist center resorts to the implementation of fascism in the external politics. This was the case in Chile, other Latin American countries, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Yugoslavia, Iraq and even Russia in the fall of 1993. US fascism in foreign policy was implemented in Ukraine, the devastating consequences of which have lasted for more than 7 years. Through the efforts of modern bourgeois-democratic Russia and the people of Syria, it was possible to resist US fascism in foreign policy in Syria.

The strengthening of the communist China and Vietnam, the preservation of the independence and independence of the DPRK, the independent foreign policy of Russia determines the presence of prerequisites for the United States of Amer ica to conduct fascism in foreign policy as the last effective means of imperialism in its struggle to ensure its influence, which is necessary to maximize the income of finance capital. These prerequisites and conditions can turn into real US fascism in foreign policy towards communist China, and the DPRK, and Vietnam, and bourgeois Russia in the event of an economic and military weakening of these countries and the strengthening of the «fifth column» in them, then there are political forces acting in the interests of the US finance capital.

If in the 30s — 40s of the 20th century, the USSR could not, due to the absence of the world communist system and strong allies, prevent the creation of fascist and the conduct of fascism in foreign policy by them, which grew up in the world war, nowadays communist China, Vietnam, Korea, Laos, Cuba, with the leading role of the PRC as the largest economy in the world and one of the three most powerful military powers in the world, are able to prevent the implementation of US fascism in foreign policy towards itself. The military alliance of the People’s Republic of China with the largest nuclear power — Russia, is capable of ensuring not only the preservation of the sovereignty of the PRC and Russia, but also the prevention of the implementation of US fascism in foreign policy in countries that have entered into appropriate contractual relations with the PRC and Russia, including within the framework of Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

Conclusion: The world-historical victory of communism in the process of resolving the contradiction between communism and capitalism as a contradiction of the new, progressive, and the old, reactionary is inevitable. At this stage of human development, the fate of the world capitalist system depends on the development of the world communist system, while the preservation and development of the world communist system depends not so much on capitalism, but on how positively the communist countries resolve their internal contradictions, especially how much the Chinese People’s The republic resolves the contradiction between the communist and non-communist sectors of the economy, how much the advantages of the planned development of the national economy are used, how much the goal of a communist society is realized — the all-round development of all members of society.

DOI 10.34660/INF.2021.18.73.003

[1] In 1924, the socialist revolution took place in Mongolia.

[2] See: Popov M.V. Planned resolution of the contradictions in the development of socialism as the first phase of communism. L.: Publishing house of the Leningrad State University.1986. 3 Ibid. P. 14.

[3] Ibid. P. 5 – 26.

[4] “When considering such upheavals, it is always necessary to distinguish a material, with natural-scientific precision, a change in the economic conditions of production from legal, political, religious, artistic or philosophical, in short: from the ideological forms in which people are aware of this conflict and struggle with it” K. Marx and F. Engels. Works, 2-nd ed., V. 13, P. 6–7.

[5] I.G. Kalabekov. Russia, China and the USA in numbers.  URL: http://chius.ru (appeal date 10.05.2021)

[6] V.I. Lenin. Full coll. op., V. 6, P. 232.

[7] URL: https://www.economicdata.ru/union.php?menu=intergovernmental-organization-unions&un_id=54&un_ticker=OECD&union_show=demography&ticker=OECD-TotalPopulation (appeal date 10.05.2021)

[8]  Xi Jinping. Speech at the 100th Anniversary Celebration of the Chinese Communist Party, July, 2021. URL: http://russian.news.cn/2021-07/01/c_1310038413.htm (appeal date 30.07.2021)

[9]  Lenin V.I. Full coll. op. 5-th ed. V. 34. P. 309.

[10] Charter of the Communist Party of China…

[11] I.G. Kalabekov. Russia, China and the USA in numbers.  URL: http://chius.ru (appeal date 10.05.2021)

[12] V.I. Lenin. Full coll. op., V. 6, P. 232.

[13] The program of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, adopted at the II Congress of the Party. Second Congress of the RSDLP. July–August 1903. Protocols. Moscow. 1959. P. 419.

[14] China’s high-speed trains continue to move forward, overtaking the entire world. China Radio International. URL: http://russian.cri.cn/life/fashion/396/20190927/359114.html (appeal date 01 June 2021)

[15] The long-awaited 14th five-year plan may focus on double reclamation and independence in technology research. PRC today. China today. URL: https://prc.today/dolgozhdannyj-14-j-pyatiletnij-plan-mozhet-sosredotochitsya-na-dvojnom-obrashhenii-i-nezavisimosti-tehnologicheskih-issledovanij/ (appeal date 02.08.2021)

[16] See: Charter of the Chinese Communist Party… 18 Ibid.

[17] Xi Jinping. Speech at the Anniversary Celebration of the Chinese Communist Party, July 1, 2021. URL: http://russian.news.cn/2021-07/01/c_1310038413.htm (appeal date 30.07.2021).

Читайте также:

Закрепите на Pinterest